Wastewater treatment / sewage treatment consists of mechanisms and processes which are used to treat water that have been contaminated by anthropogenic, industrial or commercial activities prior to its release into the environment. Industrial wastewater serves as one of the important pollution sources that add up in polluting the water environment. The sewage sludge produced is subjected to sludge treatment. Many problems are associated with wastewater collection and treatment such as foaming, solid accumulation, high BOD, sludge de-watering, heavy metals and offensive odors.
When using total wastewater treatment solutions, Wastewater treatment chemicals remove and eliminate harmful pathogens, expel hazardous chemicals, detergents and toxins, reduce odor and improve water color, and separate and extract valuable substances and clean water from the wastewater.
Polyelectrolytes are regarded as polymer chains with an electrolyte group on every repeat unit. When dissolved in a polar solvent, these polymers are charged due to dissociation of small counter ions that leave behind a charged micro ion. These are formulated in a way so as to be used as coagulants and flocculants as well as a sludge dewatering agent in the waste water treatment plants.
- Flocculants: Flocculants are chemicals responsible for bringing about secondary settling and sludge dewatering. They carry active groups with a charge which helps in counterbalancing the charge of the particles. Flocculants adsorb on particles and cause destabilization either by bridging or charge neutralization. These may be categorized according to the charge density and the molecular weight.
- Coagulants: Coagulants are referred to as chemicals that are used to help in the removal of color and turbidity present in untreated, raw water. They do this by forming settle able particles in the form of floc, which are then removed in downstream clarification or filtration treatment processes. These coagulants are either organic or inorganic based on their formulations. Organic coagulants are used for the treatment of water with low suspended solid content and they partly or completely replace the inorganic coagulants. These chemicals are appreciated for their attributes like quick flocculation, precise pH value, etc.